“THE NEW CONCRETE”

INTRODUCTION

This book is entitled “The New Concrete”. What is “new”? There are many reasons why I have used this term. Some are related to the material. Others belong to the book.First of all, during the last 30 years concrete is changed in composition and performance: only a minor part of cement is still Portland cement. In Europe about 90% of the cement adopted in modern concretes is in form of blended cements where Portland cement is replaced by fly ash, granulated ground blast furnace slag, natural or industrial pozzolan, silica fume and other components including ground limestone. The use of chemical admixtures, and particularly of superplasticizers, has revolutionized the technology of concrete in terms of water-cement –which can be as low as 0.30 to manufacture High Strength Concrete-  or in terms of workability to manufacture Self-Compacting Concrete. More recently, the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRA), particularly in combination with polymer macro-fibres or CaO-based expansive agents, allows to manufacture crack-free concrete even in the absence of wet curing.Secondly, this book is devoted to Architects and Building or Civil engineers who are interested in essential information about concrete and its performance, together with standard prescriptions to be adopted by contractors,  pre-cast concrete and ready-mixed manufacturers. Other excellent books like “Properties of Concrete” by A.M. Neville, ”High-Performance Concretes” by P.C. Aïtcin, “Concrete. Microstructure, Properties an Materials”  by P. K. Mehta and P. J. M Monteiro, are available and more devoted to scientists, students or concrete specialists, but they do not offer any helpful and practical support especially to European people concerned with concrete.The third reason why the concrete presented in this book is new is that it is based on the European Standard (EN) specially for the cements and the concrete properties dealing with characteristic strength,  permeability and durability. No other book is so devoted to the European Standards. However,  the technical literature available in America (ACI,CANMET) or in Japan (specially in chemical admixtures) is taken in great account in this book.Moreover, attached to the book is the “Easy & Quick” software to support and help  readers to establish technical prescriptions about concrete strength, durability, placement, compaction and curing according to  European Standards.A fifth reason why the concrete of this book is new is the available link to www.encosrl.it where the original papers of the author and his colleagues, quoted in the book, are freely  available.Finally let me thank my wife Isabella without whom, casting modesty aside, this book would not have had its  specially pleasing graphics and colour treatment, including pictures, tables and graphs.Mario Collepardi, October 2006

Price: Euros 110,00 (Delivered free in Europe)
For multiple purchase please contatc info@encosrl.it

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REVIEWS

Professor Pierre-Claude Aïtcin, Honorary Member of the American Concrete Institute: In his most recent book “The New Concrete ” Mario Collepardi produced a scientific book easy and pleasant to read, even for a specialist like me. This book deserves to be a best seller. I am convinced that architects, civil engineers, contractors, technicians and students will take advantage of Mario’s remarkable work for the benefit of the most widely used construction material: concrete.Prof. Carmel Jolicoeur, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada:It is unquestionably a unique document, collecting a vast amount of knowledge and know-how on concrete and related subjects: cements, pozzolans, supplementary materials, admixtures, etc. It covers virtually all topics relevant to modern concrete technology, with information sufficiently fundamental to be useful for teaching purposes, and ample description of technical issues for practitioners. The artwork is distinctive,colourful and very effective. The incorporation of complete key bibliographic references in the text is appropriate and very useful. The book is definitely a timely contribution to an increasingly complex field. I trust it will rapidly diffuse in all organisations interested in the science and technology of concrete.”Dr Tatsuo Izumi, Technical Manager of Kao Chemicals, Japan:“Honestly speaking, “The New Concrete” is a nice textbook in order to learn what the concrete is. It includes all the fields of concrete applications, and shows the pertinent references. Therefore, it is very useful and practical book.”Dr V. Mohan Malhotra, Emeritus Scientist, Natural Resources Canada:“The New Concrete” book is a welcome addition to the available literature on concrete. The book is very well written and covers aspects of modern concrete technology. The book is unique in several aspects, but two deserve special mention. First, the book follows European Standards (EN), and secondly, the book is profusely illustrated with coloured sketches, photographs, and line drawings, that make it easy to read and to follow. I hope future authors will follow the example of this book in this respect. Both, students and professional practising engineers will find this lovely volume a useful and helpful addition to their library.Prof. P. Kumar Mehta, Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, USA: “The New Concrete” is an excellent book on concrete. I am sure that it will be a valuable addition to other available books on concrete especially due to excellent graphics and a lot of new and useful data on current concrete practice.Prof. Giacomo Moriconi, Marche Polytechnic, Ancona, Italy: “The New Concrete” by Mario Collepardi is a very friendly book thanks to the practical tone adopted to discuss topics, which are at any rate funded on a rigorously scientific basis. Information is complete and exhaustive, as well as very up-to-date on the most  recent developments in research and technology. The book, whose layout is very attractive, proves to be an inseparable companion both for learning and in the professional field.Eng. Mehmet Mutlu, Nuh Beton A.S., Istanbul, Turkey: 100% concrete’s name is THE NEW CONCRETE by M.Collepardi.Dr Nelu Spiratos, President and CEO of Handy Chemicals LTD, Canada: I examined the book “The New Concrete” with great interest and was very impressed by the range of topics covered from both fundamental perspectives and pratical approaches. The overall presentation with brief, to-the-point descriptions and sharp colourful illustration yields an easy-reading most enjoyable text. I reviewd more closely the admixture section. I was again pleased to find that the latter provides a knowledgeable introduction to the many admixtures used in concrete, with useful, well-documented descriptions of their application conditions and benefits. This book will most certainly gain wide acceptance with cement, admixture and concre practitioners and academics.Prof. Narayan Swamy, Professor Emeritus at the University of Sheffield, UK: This book, thoughtfully and exquisitely illustrated by Mario’s charming wife Isabella, to clarify and convey the basics and complexities of the material is a gem of a treatise that combines the science, engineering and practicalities of concrete in all its aspects. This is a book that will be an unfailing friend and guide to all professionals associated with concrete and the construction industry.Prof. Sui Tongbo, China Buildings Materials Academy (CMBA), China: “The New Concrete ” by Professor Mario Collepardi systematically covers all the topics relevant to modern concrete technology and practices. I hve been impressed especially by the recycled concrete technology which is very important for sustainable development. The information included is very useful not only for architects, civil engineers, contractors, technicians and students, but for concrete specialist as well.Prof. Jean PERA, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, France:The New Concrete” book, by Mario Collepardi, is a very pedagogical book which will be very useful both to European students and professional practising engineers. Some chapters merit special consideration for their quality and up to date informations, like those  devoted to chemical admixtures, self-compacting concrete,shrinkage-compensating concretes and recycled concretes. The book is very easy to read and well illustrated.Prof. Semen S. Kaprielov, Russia:The structure of the book includes all of the most important questions of concrete technology.Clear text and understandable illustrations are giving possibility to the wide circle of readers, from students to experienced specialists, to understand the meaning of the questions and to feel what ? interesting work is making of high quality concrete.Prof. Jochen Stark, Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany: The book covers all relevant topics of modern concrete technology. I was very impressed about the successful combination of the description of technical issues for practitioners and fundamental information that are useful for teaching purposes. The given information on the most recent developments in research and technology is complete and actual. Compared to common scientific books the layout of ‘The New Concrete’ is very attractive, easy and pleasant to read.

INDEX OF BOOK

CHAPTER 1 – Introduction to terminology 

  • 1.1    SCOPE
  • 1.2    THE INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE
  • 1.3    THE MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
  • 1.4    THE MECHANICAL PRPERTIES OF CONCRETE
  • 1.5    DURABILITY OF STRUCTURES
  • 1.6    MIX-DESIGN
  • 1.7    FROM MIXING TO CURING

CHAPTER 2 – Cement

  • 2.1    CEMENT: THE HEART OF THE CONCRETE
  • 2.2    CEMENTS ARE NOT ALL THE SAME
  • 2.3    THE NEED FOR NORMS ON CEMENTS
  • 2.4    THE PROLIFERATION OF CEMENTS IN EUROPE
  • 2.5    SETTING TIME OF CEMENTS
  • 2.6    STRENGTH CLASS OF CEMENTS
  • 2.7    PORTLAND CEMENT
  • 2.8    POZZOLAN
  • 2.9    SLAG
  • 2.10 OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS INGREDIENTS
  • 2.11  TYPES OF CEMENT

CHAPTER 3 – Hydration, setting and hardening

  • 3.1   HYDRATION, SETTING AND HARDENING
  • 3.2   THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT
  • 3.3   THE HYDRATION OF ALUMINATES
  • 3.4   THE ROLE OF GYPSUM IN THE SETTING OF CEMENT
  • 3.5   THE HYDRATION OF SILICATES
  • 3.6   THE ROLE OF LIME

CHAPTER 4 – Aggregates

  • 4.1   THE ROLE OF AGGREGATES
  • 4.2   THE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA OF AGGREGATES
    • 4.2.1 CHLORIDE
    • 4.2.2 SULPHATE
    • 4.2.3 ALKALI-REACTIVE SILICA
    • 4.2.4 ALKALI-CARBONATE REACTION
    • 4.2.5 CLAY AND OTHER FINE MATERIALS
    • 4.2.6 ORGANIC SUBSTANCES
    • 4.2.7 FROST ATTACK
    • 4.2.8 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
  • 4.3   GRADING OF AGRREGATES
    • 4.3.1 GRADING
      • 4.3.1.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS
      • 4.3.1.2 IDEAL GRANDING DISTRIBUTION
      • 4.3.1.3 OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF AGGREGATES
  • 4.4   AGGREGATE MOISTURE
  • 4.5    INFLUENCE OF THE AGGREGATE MOISTURE ON CONCRETE PERFORMANCE
  • 4.6   CHANGE OF THE INGREDIENTS WEIGHT WITH RESPECT TO MIX-DESIGN
  • 4.7    EFFECT OF MAXIMUM SIZE AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE WATER    REQUIREMENT
  • 4.8   AGGREGATES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETES

CHAPTER 5 – Water

  • 5.1    THE ROLE OF WATER
  • 5.2    THE MAGIC OF MIX-DESIGN
    • 5.2.1 LYSE’S RULE
    • 5.2.2 ABRAMS’S LAW
    •  5.2.3 WATER REQUIREMENT
  • 5.3    THE WATER ADDITION ON THE JOB-SITE
  • 5.4    RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE WATER ADDITION ON THE JOB-SITE

CHAPTER 6 – Workability of fresh concrete

  • 6.1    THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKABILITY
  • 6.2    THE CHOICE OF WORKABILITY
  • 6.3    ADVANTAGES OF A WORKABLE CONcRETE FOR THE CONTRACTORS
  • 6.4    WORKABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE STRUCTURES
  • 6.5    DEGREE OF CONSOLIDATION
  • 6.6    STRENGTH OF SPECIMENS AND CORES
  • 6.7    COMPLEMENTARITY OF WORKABILITY AND CONSOLIDATION

CHAPTER 7 – Bleeding and segregation

  • 7.1    BLEEDING
  • 7.2    BLEEDING IN CEMENT PASTE
    • 7.2.1 BLEEDING AND CEMENT FINENESS
    • 7.2.2 BLEEDING AND MINERAL ADDITIONS
    • 7.2.3 BLEEDING AND CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES
    • 7.2.4 MIXING PROCEDURES
  • 7.3    BLEEDING IN MORTAR
    • 7.3.1 GROUTING MORTARS
    • 7.3.2 EXCAVATION FILLING MORTAR
  • 7.4    BLEEDING IN CONCRETE
    • 7.4.1 BLEEDING IN CONCRETE INDUSTRIAL FLOORS
    • 7.4.2 BLEEDING AND STEEL-CONCRETE BOND
    • 7.4.3 BLEEDING AND NEW PLACEMENT
    • 7.4.4 BLEEDING AND TRANSITION ZONE
  • 7.5    HOW TO REDUCE BLEEDING AND SEGREGATION IN CONCRETE

CHAPTER 8 – Concrete porosity

  • 8.1    KINDS OF PORES IN CONCRETE
  • 8.2    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND STRENGTH
  • 8.3    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND ELASTIC MODULUS
  • 8.4    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY
  • 8.5    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND DURABILITY

CHAPTER 9 – Mechanical properties

  • 9.1    STRENGTH
  • 9.2    STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT PASTE
  • 9.3    COMPRESSIVE STERNGTH OF CONCRETE
    • 9.3.1 INFLUENCE OF COMPACTION OF FRESH CONCRETE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
    • 9.3.2 INFLUENCE OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
  • 9.4    CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH
  • 9.5    STRENGTH CLASS ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN NORM
  • 9.6    FLEXURAL AND TENSILE STRENGTHS
  • 9.7    CORRELATION OF FLEXURAL AND TENSILE STRENGTHS WITH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
  • 9.8    CORRELATION BETWEEN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

CHAPTER 10 – Deterioration of reinforced concrete

  • 10.1  CAUSES OF DETERIORATION
  • 10.2  CORROSION OF METALLIC REINFORCEMENTS
    • 10.2.1 CORROSION PROMOTED BY CARBONATION
    • 10.2.2 CORROSION PROMOTED BY CHLORIDE
  • 10.3  CONCRETE DETERIORATION IN THE CEMENT PASTE
    • 10.3.1 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY SULPHATE ATTACK OF CEMENT PASTE
      • 10.3.1.1 EXTERNAL SUPLHATE ATTACK
      • 10.3.1.2 INTERNAL SULPHATE ATTACK
    • 10.3.2 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY LEACHING OUT OF CEMENT PASTE
    • 10.3.3 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY FREEZING AND THAWING CYCLES
      • 10.3.3.1 DURABILITY FACTOR TO ASSESS FROST-RESISTANCE
    • 10.3.4 SURFACE CRACKING DUE TO PHYSICAL EFFECTS
    • 10.3.5 SURFACE CONCRETE DAMAGES DUE TO MECHANICAL STRESSES
  • 10.4  ALKALI-AGGREGATE REACTION
    • 10.4.1 ALKALI-SILICA REACTION
    • 10.4.2 ALKALI-CARBONATE REACTION

CHAPTER 11 – Durability of concrete

  • 11.1  CLASSES OF EXPOSURE
  • 11.2  EXPOSURE CLASS XC: CARBONATION
  • 11.3  EXPOSURE CLASS XD: CHLORIDES OTHER THAN FROM SEA WATER
  • 11.4  EXPOSURE CLASS XS: CORROSION BY CHLORIDES FROM SEA WATER
  • 11.5  EXPOSURE CLASS XF: FREEZING-THAWING
  • 11.6  EXPOSURE CLASS XA: CHEMICAL AGGRESSION
  • 11.7  PRESCRIPTIONS FOR LONG TERM DURABILITY
    • 11.7.1 LONG TERM DURABILITY OF REINFORCING BARS
    • 11.7.2 LONG TERM DURABILITY IN XA3 EXPOSURE CLASS

CHAPTER 12 – Mix-design

  • 12.1  DEFINITION OF MIX DESIGN
  • 12.2  MIXING WATER AS A FUNCTION OF WORKABILITY, AGGREGATE TYPE AND ADMIXTURE
  • 12.3  WATER/CEMENT RATIO AS A FUNCTION OF STRENGTH AND CEMENT TYPE
  • 12.4  WATER/CEMENT RATIO AND AIR AS A FUNCION OF DURABILITY
  • 12.5  COMBINATION OF THE AVAILABLE AGGREGATES

CHAPTER 13 – Chemical admixtures

  • 13.1  CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES
  • 13.2  ACCELERATORS
    • 13.2.1 SETTING ACCELERATORS
    • 13.2.2 HARDENING ACCELERATORS
  • 13.3  RETARDERS
  • 13.4  AIR-ENTRAINING AGENTS
  • 13.5  CORROSION INHIBITORS
  • 13.6  ASR-INHIBITORS
  • 13.7  HYDROPHOBIC ADMIXTURES
  • 13.8  VISCOSITY MODIFYING AGENTS
  • 13.9  SHRINKAGE-REDUCING ADMIXTURES
  • 13.10 WATER-REDUCERS
  • 13.11 SUPERPLASTICIZERS OR HIGH-RANGE WATER REDUCERS
    • 13.11.1 WHY SUPERPLASTICIZERS ARE IMPORTANT
    • 13.11.2 THE PROGRESS IN SUPERPLATICIZERS
    • 13.11.3 MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF SUPERPLASTICIZERS
    • 13.11.4 PROGRESS IN SLUMP RETENTION
    • 13.11.5 SPECIAL MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SUPERPLASTICIZERS
    • 13.11.6 HOW TO USE IN PRACTICE SUPERPLASTICIZERS
    • 13.11.6.1 STRENGHT INCREASE BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER
    • 13.11.6.2 CEMENT-REDUCTION BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER
    • 13.11.6.3 WORKABILITY-INCREASE BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER

CHAPTER 14 – Temperature and concrete

  • 14.1  IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE
  • 14.2  INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT
  • 14.3  INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON SITE ORGANIZATION
  • 14.4  THERMAL TREATMENT IN PRECAST CONCRETE
  • 14.5  HEAT OF HYDRATION AND THERMAL GRADIENTS

CHAPTER 15 – Curing, Drying-shrinkage, and cracking

  • 15.1  WHY CURING OF CONCRETE IS IMPORTANT
    • 15.1.1 PROPER CURING
  • 15.2  INFLUENCE OF CURING ON CONCRETE STRENGTH
  • 15.3  INFLUENCE OF CURING ON DURABILITY
  • 15.4  SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE
  • 15.5  PLASTIC SHRINKAGE
  • 15.6  DRYING SHRINKAGE
    • 15.6.1 STANDARD DRYING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE
    • 15.6.2 PREDICTION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
    • 15.6.3 EXAMPLE OF PREDICTION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE IN A CONCRETE STRUCTURE
  • 15.7  AUTOGENOUS SHRINKAGE

CHAPTER 16 – Creep in concrete

  • 16.1  ELASTIC STRAIN, CREEP AND RELAXATION
  • 16.2  BASIC AND DRYING COMPRESSIVE CREEP
  • 16.3  PREDICTION OF COMPRESSIVE CREEP IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
  • 16.4  NUMERICAL APPLICATION OF THE CREEP IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 17 – High-strength concrete

  • 17.1  HIGH-STRENGTH VS. HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE
  • 17.2  THE ROLE PLAYED BY SILICA FUME IN HSC
  • 17.3  INFLUENCE OF TRANSITION ZONE ON CONCRETE STRENGTH
  • 17.4  DENSIFIED SMALL PARTICLE (DSP) CONCRETES
    • 17.4.1 PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF DSP CONCRETES
  • 17.5  REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE

CHAPTER 18 – Self-Compacting Concrete

  • 18.1  INTRODUCTION: PRECURSORS OF SCC
  • 18.2  COMPOSITION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE
  • 18.3  RHEOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS OF SCC
  • 18.4  COMPOSITION OF SCC AND ORDINARY FLOWING CONCRETE
  • 18.5  PROPERTIES OF SCC IN THE HARDENED STATE
    • 18.5.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
    • 18.5.2 STEEL-CONCRETE BOND OF SCC
    • 18.5.3 DRYING SHRINKAGE AND CREEP OF SCC
  • 18.6  THE ROLE OF NEW RAW MATERIALS FOR SCC
  • 18.7  PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SCC
    • 18.7.1 ARCHITECTURAL SCC
    • 18.7.2 HIGH-STRENGTH SCC
    • 18.7.3 MASS CONCRETE SCC
    • 18.7.4 PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT SCC
    • 18.7.5 SHRINKAGE-COMPENSATING SCC IN THE ABSENCE OF WET CURING

CHAPTER 19 – Structural lightweight concrete

  • 19.1  LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
  • 19.2  LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE IN THE PANTHEON, ROME
  • 19.3  CLASSIFICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES
  • 19.4  STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES
  • 19.5  STRUCTURAL READY-MIXED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

CHAPTER 20 – Fibre-reinforced concrete

  • 20.1  BEHAVIOUR OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
  • 20.2  TYPES OF FIBRES
  • 20.3  APPLICATIONS OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETES
  • 20.3.1 USE OF POLYMER MINI-FIBRES
  • 20.3.2 IMPROVED USE OF POLYMER MACRO-FIBRES
  • 20.3.3 CRACK-FREE CONCRETE FLOORS WITHOUT METALLIC WIRE-MESH AND WET-CURING
  • 20.4  LABORATORY TESTS ON REDUCED DRYING SHRINKAGE
  • 20.5  FIELD TESTS ON CRACK-FREE CONCRETE WITHOUT WIRE-MESH AND WET-CURING
  • 20.6  BEHAVIOUR OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TENSION
  • 20.7  IMPACT-STRENGTH OF STEEL FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
  • 20.8  USE OF PVA FIBRES

CHAPTER 21 – Shrinkage-compensating concretes

  • 21.1  EXPANSIVE AGENTS
  • 21.2  HOW TO MEASURE THE RESTRAINED EXPANSION
  • 21.3  SPECIMEN EXPANSION VS. REAL STRUCTURE EXPANSION
  • 21.4  THE PAS TIME OF EXPANSIVE AGENTS
  • 21.5  LIME VERSUS SULPHO-ALUMINATE AS EXPANSIVE AGENTS
  • 21.6  LIME-BASED EXPANSIVE AGENT
  • 21.7  PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ON SRA-CAO COMBINATION IN THE ABSENCE OF WET CURING

CHAPTER 22 – Shotcrete

  • 22.1  DEFINITIONS
  • 22.2  ACI RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RIGHT SHOCRETING
  • 22.2.1 ON SITE COMPOSITION
  • 22.2.2 SUBSTRATE-SHOTCRETE BOND
  • 22.2.3 ADHESION AMONG DIFFERENT LAYERS OF SHOTCRETE
  • 22.2.4 FILLING BEHIND THE STEEL REINFOCEMENTS
  • 22.2.5 LOSS OF SHOTCRETE
  • 22.3  SHOTCRETE COMPOSITION
  • 22.4  AUXILIARY MATERIALS FOR SHOTCRETE
  • 22.4.1 MINERAL ADDITIONS FOR SHOTCRETE
  • 22.4.2 FIBRES FOR SHOTCRETE
  • 22.4.3 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES FOR SHOTCRETE
  • 22.5  HIGH PERFORMANCE SHOTCRETE (HPS)

CHAPTER 23 – Recycled concrete

  • 23.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 23.2  PROCESS OF RECYCLING DEMOLISHED CONCRETE
  • 23.3  PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES
    • 23.3.1 DENSITY OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES
    • 23.3.2 WATER ABSORPTION
    • 23.3.3 CONTAMINANT PRODUCTS
  • 23.4  FRESH CONCRETES WITH RECYCLED AGGREGATES
  • 23.5  HARDENED CONCRETES WITH RECYCLED AGGREGATES

Chapter 24 – Concrete exposed to fire

  • 24.1  FIRE ENDURANCE
  • 24.2  CONCRETE BEHAVIOUR DURING IN THE FIRE
  • 24.3  INFLUENCE OF THE COVER ON THE FIRE ENDURANCE
  • 24.4  INFLUENCE OF LOADING IN SERVICE ON THE FIRE EFFECTS
  • 24.5  BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE DURING THE FIRE
  • 24.6  THE INFLUENCE OF METALLIC FIBERS ON THE FIRE
  • 24.7  INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC FIBERS ON THE FIRE BEHAVIOUR

Chapter 25 – Concrete prescriptions

  • 25.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 25.2  COMPOSITION SPECIFICATIONS
  • 25.3  PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
  • 25.3.1 CONCRETE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
    • 25.3.1.1 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF HARDENED CONCRETE
    • 25.3.1.2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF FRESH CONCRETE
  • 25.3.2 SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE CONTRACTOR
    • 25.3.2.1 CORRECT POSITIONING OF SPACERS
    • 25.3.2.2 SPECIFICATION ON COMPACTION OF FRESH CONCRETE
    • 25.3.2.3 PROPER CURING OF THE CONCRETE SUFACE