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PREFACE

This book is entitled “The New Concrete”. What is “new”? There are many reasons why I have used this term. Some are related to the material. Others belong to the book.

First of all, during the last 30 years concrete is changed in composition and performance: only a minor part of cement is still Portland cement. In Europe about 90% of the cement adopted in modern concretes is in form of blended cements where Portland cement is replaced by fly ash, granulated ground blast furnace slag, natural or industrial pozzolan, silica fume and other components including ground limestone. The use of chemical admixtures, and particularly of superplasticizers, has revolutionized the technology of concrete in terms of water-cement –which can be as low as 0.30 to manufacture High Strength Concrete-  or in terms of workability to manufacture Self-Compacting Concrete. More recently, the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRA), particularly in combination with polymer macro-fibres or CaO-based expansive agents, allows to manufacture crack-free concrete even in the absence of wet curing.


Secondly, this book is devoted to Architects and Building or Civil engineers who are interested in essential information about concrete and its performance, together with standard prescriptions to be adopted by contractors,  pre-cast concrete and ready-mixed manufacturers. Other excellent books like “Properties of Concrete” by A.M. Neville, ”High-Performance Concretes” by P.C. Aïtcin, “Concrete. Microstructure, Properties an Materials”  by P. K. Mehta and P. J. M Monteiro, are available and more devoted to scientists, students or concrete specialists, but they do not offer any helpful and practical support especially to European people concerned with concrete.

The third reason why the concrete presented in this book is new is that it is based on the European Standard (EN) specially for the cements and the concrete properties dealing with characteristic strength,  permeability and durability. No other book is so devoted to the European Standards. However,  the technical literature available in America (ACI,CANMET) or in Japan (specially in chemical admixtures) is taken in great account in this book.

Moreover, attached to the book is the “Easy & Quick” software to support and help  readers to establish technical prescriptions about concrete strength, durability, placement, compaction and curing according to  European Standards.

A fifth reason why the concrete of this book is new is the available link to www.encosrl.it where the original papers of the author and his colleagues, quoted in the book, are freely  available.

Finally let me thank my wife Isabella without whom, casting modesty aside, this book would not have had its  specially pleasing graphics and colour treatment, including pictures, tables and graphs.

Mario Collepardi, October 2006

Price: Euros 110,00 (Delivered free in Europe)

For multiple purchase please contatc info@encosrl.it - BUY ON LINE


REVIEWS

Professor Pierre-Claude Aïtcin, Honorary Member of the American Concrete Institute: 
In his most recent book "The New Concrete " Mario Collepardi produced a scientific book easy and pleasant to read, even for a specialist like me. This book deserves to be a best seller. I am convinced that architects, civil engineers, contractors, technicians and students will take advantage of Mario's remarkable work for the benefit of the most widely used construction material: concrete.

Prof. Carmel Jolicoeur, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada:
It is unquestionably a unique document, collecting a vast amount of knowledge and know-how on concrete and related subjects: cements, pozzolans, supplementary materials, admixtures, etc. It covers virtually all topics relevant to modern concrete technology, with information sufficiently fundamental to be useful for teaching purposes, and ample description of technical issues for practitioners. The artwork is distinctive,colourful and very effective. The incorporation of complete key bibliographic references in the text is appropriate and very useful. The book is definitely a timely contribution to an increasingly complex field. I trust it will rapidly diffuse in all organisations interested in the science and technology of concrete.” 

Dr Tatsuo Izumi, Technical Manager of Kao Chemicals, Japan:
“Honestly speaking, "The New Concrete" is a nice textbook in order to learn what the concrete is. It includes all the fields of concrete applications, and shows the pertinent references. 
Therefore, it is very useful and practical book.”

Dr V. Mohan Malhotra, Emeritus Scientist, Natural Resources Canada:
“The New Concrete” book is a welcome addition to the available literature on concrete. The book is very well written and covers aspects of modern concrete technology. The book is unique in several aspects, but two deserve special mention. First, the book follows European Standards (EN), and secondly, the book is profusely illustrated with coloured sketches, photographs, and line drawings, that make it easy to read and to follow. I hope future authors will follow the example of this book in this respect. Both, students and professional practising engineers will find this lovely volume a useful and helpful addition to their library.

Prof. P. Kumar Mehta, Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, USA: 
“The New Concrete” is an excellent book on concrete. I am sure that it will be a valuable addition to other available books on concrete especially due to excellent graphics and a lot of new and useful data on current concrete practice.

Prof. Giacomo Moriconi, Marche Polytechnic, Ancona, Italy: 
“The New Concrete” by Mario Collepardi is a very friendly book thanks to the practical tone adopted to discuss topics, which are at any rate funded on a rigorously scientific basis. Information is complete and exhaustive, as well as very up-to-date on the most  recent developments in research and technology. The book, whose layout is very attractive, proves to be an inseparable companion both for learning and in the professional field.

Eng. Mehmet Mutlu, Nuh Beton A.S., Istanbul, Turkey: 
100% concrete's name is THE NEW CONCRETE by M.Collepardi.

Dr Nelu Spiratos, President and CEO of Handy Chemicals LTD, Canada: 
I examined the book “The New Concrete” with great interest and was very impressed by the range of topics covered from both fundamental perspectives and pratical approaches. The overall presentation with brief, to-the-point descriptions and sharp colourful illustration yields an easy-reading most enjoyable text. I reviewd more closely the admixture section. I was again pleased to find that the latter provides a knowledgeable introduction to the many admixtures used in concrete, with useful, well-documented descriptions of their application conditions and benefits. This book will most certainly gain wide acceptance with cement, admixture and concre practitioners and academics.

Prof. Narayan Swamy, Professor Emeritus at the University of Sheffield, UK:
 
This book, thoughtfully and exquisitely illustrated by Mario's charming wife Isabella, to clarify and convey the basics and complexities of the material is a gem of a treatise that combines the science, engineering and practicalities of concrete in all its aspects. This is a book that will be an unfailing friend and guide to all professionals associated with concrete and the construction industry.

Prof. Sui Tongbo, China Buildings Materials Academy (CMBA), China: 
"The New Concrete " by Professor Mario Collepardi systematically covers all the topics relevant to modern concrete technology and practices. I hve been impressed especially by the recycled concrete technology which is very important for sustainable development. The information included is very useful not only for architects, civil engineers, contractors, technicians and students, but for concrete specialist as well.

Prof. Jean PERA, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, France:
The New Concrete" book, by Mario Collepardi, is a very pedagogical book which will be very useful both to European students and professional practising engineers. Some chapters merit special consideration for their quality and up to date informations, like those  devoted to chemical admixtures, self-compacting concrete,shrinkage-compensating concretes and recycled concretes. The book is very easy to read and well illustrated.

Prof. Semen S. Kaprielov, Russia:
The structure of the book includes all of the most important questions of concrete technology.Clear text and understandable illustrations are giving possibility to the wide circle of readers, from students to experienced specialists, to understand the meaning of the questions and to feel what а interesting work is making of high quality concrete.

Prof. Jochen Stark, 
Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany: 
The book covers all relevant topics of modern concrete technology. I was very impressed about the successful combination of the description of technical issues for practitioners and fundamental information that are useful for teaching purposes. The given information on the most recent developments in research and technology is complete and actual. Compared to common scientific books the layout of ‘The New Concrete’ is very attractive, easy and pleasant to read.


INDEX OF THE BOOK "THE NEW CONCRETE"

CHAPTER I - Introduction to terminology

1.1    SCOPE

1.2    THE INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE

1.3    THE MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE

1.4    THE MECHANICAL PRPERTIES OF CONCRETE

1.5    DURABILITY OF STRUCTURES

1.6    MIX-DESIGN

1.7    FROM MIXING TO CURING

CHAPTER II - Cement

2.1    CEMENT: THE HEART OF THE CONCRETE

2.2    CEMENTS ARE NOT ALL THE SAME

2.3    THE NEED FOR NORMS ON CEMENTS

2.4    THE PROLIFERATION OF CEMENTS IN EUROPE

2.5    SETTING TIME OF CEMENTS

2.6    STRENGTH CLASS OF CEMENTS

2.7    PORTLAND CEMENT

2.8    POZZOLAN

2.9    SLAG

2.10 OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS INGREDIENTS

2.11 TYPES OF CEMENT

CHAPTER III - Hydration, setting and hardening

3.1   HYDRATION, SETTING AND HARDENING

3.2   THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT

3.3   THE HYDRATION OF ALUMINATES

3.4   THE ROLE OF GYPSUM IN THE SETTING OF CEMENT

3.5   THE HYDRATION OF SILICATES

3.6   THE ROLE OF LIME

CHAPTER IV - Aggregates

4.1   THE ROLE OF AGGREGATES

4.2   THE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA OF AGGREGATES

4.2.1 CHLORIDE

4.2.2 SULPHATE

4.2.3 ALKALI-REACTIVE SILICA

4.2.4 ALKALI-CARBONATE REACTION

4.2.5 CLAY AND OTHER FINE MATERIALS

4.2.6 ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

4.2.7 FROST ATTACK

4.2.8 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

4.3   GRADING OF AGRREGATES

4.3.1 GRADING

4.3.1.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS

4.3.1.2 IDEAL GRANDING DISTRIBUTION

4.3.1.3 OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF AGGREGATES

4.4   AGGREGATE MOISTURE

4.5    INFLUENCE OF THE AGGREGATE MOISTURE ON CONCRETE PERFORMANCE

4.6   CHANGE OF THE INGREDIENTS WEIGHT WITH RESPECT TO MIX-DESIGN

4.7    EFFECT OF MAXIMUM SIZE AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE WATER REQUIREMENT

4.8   AGGREGATES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETES

CHAPTER V - Water

5.1    THE ROLE OF WATER

5.2    THE MAGIC OF MIX-DESIGN

        5.2.1 LYSE’S RULE

        5.2.2 ABRAMS’S LAW

        5.2.3 WATER REQUIREMENT

5.3    THE WATER ADDITION ON THE JOB-SITE

5.4    RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE WATER ADDITION ON THE JOB-SITE

CHAPTER VI - Workability of fresh concrete

6.1    THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKABILITY

6.2    THE CHOICE OF WORKABILITY

6.3    ADVANTAGES OF A WORKABLE CONcRETE FOR THE CONTRACTORS

6.4    WORKABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE STRUCTURES

6.5    DEGREE OF CONSOLIDATION

6.6    STRENGTH OF SPECIMENS AND CORES

6.7    COMPLEMENTARITY OF WORKABILITY AND CONSOLIDATION

CHAPTER VII - Bleeding and segregation

7.1    BLEEDING

7.2    BLEEDING IN CEMENT PASTE

7.2.1 BLEEDING AND CEMENT FINENESS

7.2.2 BLEEDING AND MINERAL ADDITIONS

7.2.3 BLEEDING AND CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES

7.2.4 MIXING PROCEDURES

7.3    BLEEDING IN MORTAR

7.3.1 GROUTING MORTARS

7.3.2 EXCAVATION FILLING MORTAR

7.4    BLEEDING IN CONCRETE

7.4.1 BLEEDING IN CONCRETE INDUSTRIAL FLOORS

7.4.2 BLEEDING AND STEEL-CONCRETE BOND

7.4.3 BLEEDING AND NEW PLACEMENT

7.4.4 BLEEDING AND TRANSITION ZONE

7.5    HOW TO REDUCE BLEEDING AND SEGREGATION IN CONCRETE

CHAPTER VIII - Concrete porosity

8.1    KINDS OF PORES IN CONCRETE

8.2    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND STRENGTH

8.3    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND ELASTIC MODULUS

8.4    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

8.5    CAPILLARY POROSITY AND DURABILITY

CHAPTER IX - Mechanical properties

9.1    STRENGTH

9.2    STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT PASTE

9.3    COMPRESSIVE STERNGTH OF CONCRETE

9.3.1 INFLUENCE OF COMPACTION OF FRESH CONCRETE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

9.3.2 INFLUENCE OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

9.4    CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH

9.5    STRENGTH CLASS ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN NORM

9.6    FLEXURAL AND TENSILE STRENGTHS

9.7    CORRELATION OF FLEXURAL AND TENSILE STRENGTHS WITH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

9.8    CORRELATION BETWEEN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

CHAPTER X - Deterioration of reinforced concrete

10.1  CAUSES OF DETERIORATION

10.2  CORROSION OF METALLIC REINFORCEMENTS

10.2.1 CORROSION PROMOTED BY CARBONATION

10.2.2 CORROSION PROMOTED BY CHLORIDE

10.3  CONCRETE DETERIORATION IN THE CEMENT PASTE

10.3.1 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY SULPHATE ATTACK OF CEMENT PASTE

10.3.1.1 EXTERNAL SUPLHATE ATTACK

10.3.1.2 INTERNAL SULPHATE ATTACK

10.3.2 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY LEACHING OUT OF CEMENT PASTE

10.3.3 CONCRETE DAMAGE BY FREEZING AND THAWING CYCLES

10.3.3.1 DURABILITY FACTOR TO ASSESS FROST-RESISTANCE

10.3.4 surface cracking due to physical effects

10.3.5 surface concrete damages due to Mechanical stresses

10.4  ALKALI-AGGREGATE REACTION

10.4.1 ALKALI-SILICA REACTION

10.4.2 ALKALI-CARBONATE REACTION

CHAPTER XI - Durability of concrete

11.1  CLASSES OF EXPOSURE

11.2  EXPOSURE CLASS XC: CARBONATION

11.3  EXPOSURE CLASS XD: CHLORIDES OTHER THAN FROM SEA WATER

11.4  EXPOSURE CLASS XS: CORROSION BY CHLORIDES FROM SEA WATER

11.5  EXPOSURE CLASS XF: FREEZING-THAWING

11.6  EXPOSURE CLASS XA: CHEMICAL AGGRESSION

11.7  PRESCRIPTIONS FOR LONG TERM DURABILITY

11.7.1 LONG TERM DURABILITY OF REINFORCING BARS

11.7.2 LONG TERM DURABILITY IN XA3 EXPOSURE CLASS

CHAPTER XII - Mix-design

12.1  DEFINITION OF MIX DESIGN

12.2  MIXING WATER AS A FUNCTION OF WORKABILITY, AGGREGATE TYPE AND ADMIXTURE

12.3  WATER/CEMENT RATIO AS A FUNCTION OF STRENGTH AND CEMENT TYPE

12.4  WATER/CEMENT RATIO AND AIR AS A FUNCION OF DURABILITY

12.5  COMBINATION OF THE AVAILABLE AGGREGATES

CHAPTER XIII - Chemical admixtures

13.1  CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES

13.2  ACCELERATORS

13.2.1 SETTING ACCELERATORS

13.2.2 HARDENING ACCELERATORS

13.3  RETARDERS

13.4  AIR-ENTRAINING AGENTS

13.5  CORROSION INHIBITORS

13.6  ASR-INHIBITORS

13.7  HYDROPHOBIC ADMIXTURES

13.8  VISCOSITY MODIFYING AGENTS

13.9  SHRINKAGE-REDUCING ADMIXTURES

13.10 WATER-REDUCERS

13.11 SUPERPLASTICIZERS OR HIGH-RANGE WATER REDUCERS

13.11.1 WHY SUPERPLASTICIZERS ARE IMPORTANT

13.11.2 THE PROGRESS IN SUPERPLATICIZERS

13.11.3 MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF SUPERPLASTICIZERS

13.11.4 PROGRESS IN SLUMP RETENTION

13.11.5 SPECIAL MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SUPERPLASTICIZERS

13.11.6 HOW TO USE IN PRACTICE SUPERPLASTICIZERS

13.11.6.1 STRENGHT INCREASE BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER

13.11.6.2 CEMENT-REDUCTION BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER

13.11.6.3 WORKABILITY-INCREASE BY USING SUPERPLASTICIZER

CHAPTER XIV - Temperature and concrete

14.1  IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE

14.2  INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

14.3  INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON SITE ORGANIZATION

14.4  THERMAL TREATMENT IN PRECAST CONCRETE

14.5  HEAT OF HYDRATION AND THERMAL GRADIENTS

CHAPTER XV - Curing, Drying-shrinkage, and cracking

15.1  WHY CURING OF CONCRETE IS IMPORTANT

15.1.1 PROPER CURING

15.2  INFLUENCE OF CURING ON CONCRETE STRENGTH

15.3  INFLUENCE OF CURING ON DURABILITY

15.4  SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

15.5  PLASTIC SHRINKAGE

15.6  DRYING SHRINKAGE

15.6.1 STANDARD DRYING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

15.6.2 PREDICTION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

15.6.3 EXAMPLE OF PREDICTION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE IN A CONCRETE STRUCTURE

15.7  AUTOGENOUS SHRINKAGE

CHAPTER XVI - Creep in concrete

16.1  ELASTIC STRAIN, CREEP AND RELAXATION

16.2  BASIC AND DRYING COMPRESSIVE CREEP

16.3  PREDICTION OF COMPRESSIVE CREEP IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

16.4  NUMERICAL APPLICATION OF THE CREEP IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CHAPTER XVII - High-strength concrete

17.1  HIGH-STRENGTH VS. HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

17.2  THE ROLE PLAYED BY SILICA FUME IN HSC

17.3  INFLUENCE OF TRANSITION ZONE ON CONCRETE STRENGTH

17.4  DENSIFIED SMALL PARTICLE (DSP) CONCRETES

17.4.1 PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF DSP CONCRETES

17.5  REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE

CHAPTER XVIII - Self-Compacting Concrete

18.1  INTRODUCTION: PRECURSORS OF SCC

18.2  COMPOSITION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE

18.3  RHEOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS OF SCC

18.4  COMPOSITION OF SCC AND ORDINARY FLOWING CONCRETE

18.5  PROPERTIES OF SCC IN THE HARDENED STATE

18.5.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

18.5.2 STEEL-CONCRETE BOND OF SCC

18.5.3 DRYING SHRINKAGE AND CREEP OF SCC

18.6  THE ROLE OF NEW RAW MATERIALS FOR SCC

18.7  PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SCC

18.7.1 ARCHITECTURAL SCC

18.7.2 HIGH-STRENGTH SCC

18.7.3 MASS CONCRETE SCC

18.7.4 PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT SCC

18.7.5 SHRINKAGE-COMPENSATING SCC IN THE ABSENCE OF WET CURING

CHAPTER XIX - Structural lightweight concrete

19.1  LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

19.2  LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE IN THE PANTHEON, ROME

19.3  CLASSIFICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

19.4  STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

19.5  STRUCTURAL READY-MIXED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

CHAPTER XX - Fibre-reinforced concrete

20.1  BEHAVIOUR OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE

20.2  TYPES OF FIBRES

20.3  APPLICATIONS OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETES

20.3.1 USE OF POLYMER MINI-FIBRES

20.3.2 IMPROVED USE OF POLYMER MACRO-FIBRES

20.3.3 CRACK-FREE CONCRETE FLOORS WITHOUT METALLIC WIRE-MESH AND WET-CURING

20.4  LABORATORY TESTS ON REDUCED DRYING SHRINKAGE

20.5  FIELD TESTS ON CRACK-FREE CONCRETE WITHOUT WIRE-MESH AND WET-CURING

20.6  BEHAVIOUR OF FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TENSION

20.7  IMPACT-STRENGTH OF STEEL FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE

20.8  USE OF PVA FIBRES

CHAPTER XXI - Shrinkage-compensating concretes

21.1  EXPANSIVE AGENTS

21.2  HOW TO MEASURE THE RESTRAINED EXPANSION

21.3  SPECIMEN EXPANSION VS. REAL STRUCTURE EXPANSION

21.4  THE PAS TIME OF EXPANSIVE AGENTS

21.5  LIME VERSUS SULPHO-ALUMINATE AS EXPANSIVE AGENTS

21.6  LIME-BASED EXPANSIVE AGENT

21.7  PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ON SRA-CAO COMBINATION IN THE ABSENCE OF WET CURING

CHAPTER XXII - Shotcrete

22.1  DEFINITIONS

22.2  ACI RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RIGHT SHOCRETING

22.2.1 ON SITE COMPOSITION

22.2.2 SUBSTRATE-SHOTCRETE BOND

22.2.3 ADHESION AMONG DIFFERENT LAYERS OF SHOTCRETE

22.2.4 FILLING BEHIND THE STEEL REINFOCEMENTS

22.2.5 LOSS OF SHOTCRETE

22.3  SHOTCRETE COMPOSITION

22.4  AUXILIARY MATERIALS FOR SHOTCRETE

22.4.1 MINERAL ADDITIONS FOR SHOTCRETE

22.4.2 FIBRES FOR SHOTCRETE

22.4.3 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES FOR SHOTCRETE

22.5  HIGH PERFORMANCE SHOTCRETE (HPS)

CHAPTER XXIII - Recycled concrete

23.1  INTRODUCTION

23.2  PROCESS OF RECYCLING DEMOLISHED CONCRETE

23.3  PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES

23.3.1 DENSITY OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES

23.3.2 WATER ABSORPTION

23.3.3 CONTAMINANT PRODUCTS

23.4  FRESH CONCRETES WITH RECYCLED AGGREGATES

23.5  HARDENED CONCRETES WITH RECYCLED AGGREGATES

Chapter XXIV - Concrete exposed to fire

24.1  FIRE ENDURANCE

24.2  CONCRETE BEHAVIOUR DURING IN THE FIRE

24.3  INFLUENCE OF THE COVER ON THE FIRE ENDURANCE

24.4  INFLUENCE OF LOADING IN SERVICE ON THE FIRE EFFECTS

24.5  BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE DURING THE FIRE

24.6  THE INFLUENCE OF METALLIC FIBERS ON THE FIRE

24.7  INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC FIBERS ON THE FIRE BEHAVIOUR

Chapter XXV - Concrete prescriptions

25.1  INTRODUCTION

25.2  COMPOSITION SPECIFICATIONS

25.3  PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

25.3.1 CONCRETE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

         25.3.1.1 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF HARDENED CONCRETE

         25.3.1.2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF FRESH CONCRETE

25.3.2 SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE CONTRACTOR

         25.3.2.1 CORRECT POSITIONING OF SPACERS

         25.3.2.2 SPECIFICATION ON COMPACTION OF FRESH CONCRETE

         25.3.2.3 PROPER CURING OF THE CONCRETE SUFACE