PREFACE

Concrete
mix-design is the method to transform the required engineering properties into the composition of the
concrete mixture in terms of kg/m^{3} of cement, water, sand and coarse
aggregate.

The concrete mix design elaborated in this handbook is based on the EN 197-1 for the cements to be adopted, and the EN 206-1 for the required exposure and consistency classes

This handbook takes into account two types of mix-design depending on the complexity of the required performances: simple or complex mix design.

**Simple mix-design** is based on the relationships between the concrete
properties, on one hand, and the composition of the mixture, on the other, when
the concrete properties are the 28-day characteristic strength in the hardened
state, and the workability in the fresh state. These relationships depend on
the cement strength class and the maximum size of the aggregate.

**Complex mix-design** is based on the relationships between properties and concrete composition when the properties include durability, permeability, early strength, flexural or tensile strength, besides the 28-day compressive strength. Complex mix-design also includes the calculation of the slump loss depending on the time and temperature transportation, as well as the presence of chemical admixtures.

This handbook also takes into account how to predict drying shrinkage, creep and thermal heating in concrete structures on the basis of the concrete composition elaborated from the mix design.

A special software called CMD (*Computerized Mix Design*) is available to elaborate automatically simple and complex mix designs.

Price: Euros 130,00 (Delivered free in Europe)

For multiple purchase please contatc info@encosrl.it - BUY ON LINE

INDEX OF THE BOOK "CONCRETE MIX DESIGN"

**CONCRETE MIX DESIGN**

1 The principle of mix design

2 Types of mix design

2.1 Simple mix design

2.1.1 Example of a simple mix design

2.2 Complex mix design

2.2.1 Example of a complex mix design

**MODULE 1**

Properties of concrete

**MODULE 2**

Rheological Properties

**2.1** WORKABILITY OF
CONCRETE

**2.2** MAXIMUM SIZE
OF THE AGGREGATE (D_{max}) RECOMMENDED FOR SOME TYPICAL CONCRETE WORKS

**2.3** WORKABILITY OF
CONCRETE MIXTURE AT THE TIME OF PLACEMENT W_{p}) AS A FUNCTION OF THE TYPE OF STRUCTURE

**2.4** WORKABILITY OF
CONCRETE AFTER MIXING (W_{M})

**2.5** AMOUNT OF
MIXING WATER AS A FUNCTION OF MAXIMUM SIZE (D_{max}) OF THE AGGREGATES AND WORKABILITY (W_{m})

AFTER MIXING

**2.5.1** Humidity of aggregates

**2.5.2** Influence of the moist aggregates on the amount of mixing
water

**2.5.2.1** Influence of the air-dry aggregate on
mixing water

**2.5.2.2** Correction of the concrete composition
with moist aggregates

**2.5.2.3** Correction of the concrete composition
with air-dry aggregates

**2.5.3** Workability prescription as method to check mixing
water

**2.5.3.1** Concrete producer who does check neither
workability nor aggregate humidity

**2.5.3.2** Concrete producer who does check
workability without knowing the aggregate humidity

**2.5.4** Influence of chemical admixtures on mixing water

**2.6** INFLUENCE OF D_{max}
ON THE AIR VOLUME IN THE CONCRETE

**2.7** MIX-DESING OF
A PUMPABLE CONCRETE

**2.7.1** Size characteristics of the sand for a pumpable
concrete

**2.7.2** Combination of sand and coarse aggregate in a
pumpable concrete according to the Goldbeck method

**MODULE 3**

Mechanical Properties

**3.1** CONCRETE
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

**3.2** THE EUROPEAN
NORMS OF CEMENTS

**3.3** SYMPLIFIED
RELATION OF STRENGTH WITH OTHER PARAMETERS

**3.3.1** Cube compressive strength of concrete with cement of
class 32.5

**3.3.2** Cube compressive strength of concrete with cement of
class 42.5

**3.3.3** Cube compressive strength of concrete with cement of
class 52.5

**3.3.4** Cylinder compressive strength of concrete with cement
of class 32.5

**3.3.5** Cylinder compressive strength of concrete with cement
of class 42.5

**3.3.6** Cylinder compressive strength of concrete with cement
of class 52.5

**3.4** HOW TO IMPROVE
THE CORRELATION BETWEEN f_{c} AND w/c

**3.4.1** How to refine the correlation between the expected results
and the experimental one

**3.4.2** The relation f_{c} vs. w/c at temperatures
other than 20°C

**3.4.3** How to correct the strength deviation due to the
difference in air volume with respect to the scheduled one

**3.4.4** How to assess the presence of accelerating or
retarding admixtures on the relation f_{cu/m} vs. w/c

**3.4.5** How to take into account lightweight aggregate in the
relation f_{cu/c} vs. w/c

**3.5** CHARACTERISTIC
STRENGTH f_{ck}

**3.5.1** Criterion 1 to assess f_{ck}

**3.5.2** Criterion 2 to assess f_{ck}

**3.6** CONCRETE
FLEXURAL AND TENSILE STRENGTH

**MODULE 4**

Elastic Properties

**4.1** ELASTIC
MODULUS AS A FUNCTION OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

**4.2** APPROXIMATION
IN THE EQUATION RELATING E WITH f_{cm}

**MODULE 5**

Chemical Properties

**5.1** CONCRETE
DURABILITY

**5.2** PERMEABILITY
COEFFICIENT OF CONCRETE

**5.3** EXPOSURE
CLASSES

**5.3.1** Exposure Class XC: corrosion promoted by carbonation

**5.3.2** Exposure Class XD: corrosion promoted by chlorides
other than those from sea water

**5.3.3** Exposure Class XS: corrosion of reinforcements by
chlorides from sea water

**5.3.4** Exposure Class XF: corrosion exposed to
freezing-thawing cycles

**5.3.5** Exposure Class XA: concrete in natural soils

**5.3.6** Exposure Class XA: concrete structures exposed to
aggressive waters

**MODULE 6**

Drying Shrinkage Properties

**6.1** CONCRETE
DRYING SHRINKAGE

**6.2** THE SHRINKAGE
DEPENDS ON THE TIME

**6.3** THE SHRINKAGE
DEPENDS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL HUMIDITY

**6.4** THE SHRINKAGE
DEPENDS ON THE FICTITIOUS THICKNESS

**6.5** THE SHRINKAGE
DEPENDS ON THE METALLIC REINFORCEMENTS

**6.6** THE SHRINKAGE
DEPENDS ON THE ELASTIC MODULUS OF THE AGGREGATE

**6.7** DRYING
SHRINKAGE OF A STRUCTURE FROM THE CONCRETE COMPOSITION DERIVED FROM f_{ck},
SLUMP, CEMENT

TYPE AND D_{max} OF THE
AGGREGATE

**6.8** CHECKING OF A
DRYING SHRINKAGE PRESCRIPTION

**6.9** HOW TO DESIGN
THE CONCRETE MIXTURE FROM DRYING SHRINKAGE REQUIREMENTS

**MODULE 7**

Creep Properties

**7.1** DEFORMATION
DUE TO SHRINKAGE, ELASTIC STRAIN AND CREEP

**7.2** ESTIMATION OF
CREEP

**7.3** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

**7.4** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE CURING TIME AND CEMENT STRENGTH CLASS

**7.5** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE CONCRETE COMPOSITION

**7.6** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE THICKNESS OF THE CONCRETE STRUCTURE

**7.7** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE TIME OF LOADING

**7.8** CREEP DEPENDS
ON THE ELASTIC MODULUS OF THE AGGREGATE

**7.9** HOW TO
ESTIMATE CREEP FROM CONCRETE REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS

**7.10** CONCRETE
COMPOSITION AS A FUNCTION OF A GIVEN CREEP

**MODULE 8**

Thermal Properties

**8** CONCRETE
THERMAL PROPERTIES

**8.1** THERMAL
DILATATION COEFFICIENT

**8.2** THERMAL
CONCRETE CONDUCTIVITY

**8.3** CONCRETE
THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY

**8.4** CONCRETE
SPECIFIC HEAT

**8.5** HEAT OF CEMENT
HYDRATION

**8.6** TEMPERATURE OF
THE CONCRETE JUST AFTER MIXING

**8.7** CONCRETE
TEMPERATURE AFTER PLACEMENT AND THERMAL GRADIENTS

**8.7.1** Thermal gradient and risk of cracking

**8.7.2** Maximum concrete temperature due to heat of hydration

**8.8** STEAM CURING
OF CONCRETE

**8.8.1** Correlation between the strength of the steam-cured
concrete and 28-day compressive strength at

20°C

**8.8.1.1** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
42.5 - T_{max}= 50°C

**8.8.1.2** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
42.5 - T_{max}= 65°C

**8.8.1.3** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
42.5 - T_{max}= 80°C

**8.8.1.4** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
52.5 - T_{max}= 50°C

**8.8.1.5** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
52.5 - T_{max}= 65°C

**8.8.1.6** Strength of steam cured concrete: CEM
52.5 - T_{max}= 80°C

**8.8.1.7** Correlation between f_{cmst} and
f’_{cm28}

**8.8.2** Concrete composition based on: f_{cu/ck} , f_{cms}
, slump, D_{max} and t_{c}

**MODULE 9**

Aggregate size distribution

**9.1** PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION

**9.2** IDEAL PARTICLE
SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SOLIDS IN CONCRETE

**9.2.1** Comparison of Bolomey Vs Füller equations

**9.3** PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION OF AGGREGATES

**9.3.1** Influence of D_{max} on the Füller curve

**9.3.2** Influence of the cement content on the Bolomey
equation

**9.4** IDEAL AND
OPTIMAL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE AGGREGATE

**9.4.1** Graphical method to combine available aggregates

**9.4.2** Numerical method to combine aggregates

**9.4.2.1** Numerical method to combine aggregates
to reproduce a Bolomey curve (Vincenzo Maniscalco

Method)

** 9.4.2.1.1** Bolomey with A_{B} = 8

** 9.4.2.1.2** Bolomey with A_{B} = 10

** 9.4.2.1.3** Bolomey with A_{B} = 12

** 9.4.2.1.4** Bolomey with A_{B} = 14

**9.4.2.2** Examples of combination of aggregates
according to the Maniscalco Method

** 9.4.2.2.1** Example of combination of two aggregates

** 9.4.2.2.2** Example of combination of three aggregates

** 9.4.2.2.3** Example of combinatio of five aggregates

**EXERCISES**